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Veterinary Teaching Hospital
Clinical Pathology
Hospital-wide Services
Advanced laboratory testing to help accurately diagnose disease

Clinical pathology helps accurately diagnose disease through laboratory testing of blood, bodily fluids, and tissues, and by evaluation of individual cells.

Our board-certified pathologists, residents, and certified medical technologists perform high-quality laboratory testing in clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, and diagnostic cytology to provide timely and accurate diagnostic service to hospital clinicians, researchers, and referring veterinarians.

We perform routine and specialized testing for diseases and conditions, including

  • Infectious disease detection
  • Urinary tract disease
  • Blood (hematology) disorders, such as clotting disorders, disorders of red blood cells (anemia) and white blood cells
  • Cancer
  • Analyzing liver and kidney health
  • Hormonal disorders, including Cushing’s disease and thyroid diseases
  • Evaluation of blood gases and electrolytes
  • Blood typing and crossmatching

We fax or email most test results to the attending veterinarian or clinic. Critical results may also be phoned to the veterinarian. Please indicate your preference on the submission form.

Any animal species not included on our test page is classified as a non-routine animal. For tests on non-routine animal species please call the lab.

Our Blood Donor Program is specific for patients visiting the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. We do not supply blood products outside of the hospital.

Please visit the For Veterinarians page for information on MDR1 genetic testing through the Pharmacology Lab or histopathology, serology and bacteriology testing through the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory.

  Referral Required

We only accept samples from veterinarians.

Laboratory hours
Monday through Friday, 8 a.m.–5 p.m., and Saturday 9 a.m. – noon for
in-hospital patients

Fax: 509-335-7812

US Postal Service
Washington State University
Veterinary Teaching Hospital
ATTN: Clinical Pathology
PO Box 647060
Pullman, WA 99164-7060

FedEx/FedEx Air/UPS
Washington State University
Veterinary Teaching Hospital
ATTN: Clinical Pathology, Room 1402
205 Ott Road
Pullman, WA 99164-7060

Submission Information

Sample Submissions and Fees

  • Hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, diagnostic cytology testing
  • Blood banking

Samples received after 4 p.m. will be tested the next business day unless an afterhours fee is charged. In-clinic patient testing is available on Saturdays from  9 a.m. – noon, will only be preliminary. Send-in/research samples are not processed on holidays or weekends. After-hours fee will be assessed for samples submitted after 4 p.m.

Sample Submission

  • Please include a completed Clinical Pathology requisition form. Include the veterinary clinic/veterinarian, address, and fax/telephone information.
  • Patient information should include full name, age, sex, species/breed and history.
  • All samples should be labeled with patient name.
  • Date of blood draw or sample collection should be on the form.
  • Samples should be received same day or shipped overnight on a cold pack, unless it is a slide cytology.
  • Serum, plasma samples should be separated from the RBCs.
  • An air-dried differential slide should be made if a CBC is ordered. The slide should be protected from freezing/heat exposure and should not be packaged with formalin fixed tissues.
  • NOTE: Ideally, shipping over the weekend or a holiday is not optimal for sample integrity. It is best to avoid this unless necessary.
  • Fluid cytologies, when possible, should have an air-dried direct slide made to preserve cellular integrity.
  • Cytologies should include sample site or fluid type with description of the lesion and any relevant history.
  • Cytology samples should not be packaged with formalin fixed tissues.
  • For cytology submissions requiring additional information, please attach a second page, preferably typed.

Resubmit a Sample

Samples are received under the same accession number and are not charged an additional test fee unless there is an additional shipping charge. To resubmit samples, follow the original guidelines for submitting specimens. Samples cannot be resubmitted after 14 days.

Saving Samples

Samples submitted to the Clinical Pathology Lab are saved for one week in the refrigerator. If additional testing is desired during this time, please notify the laboratory to determine if there is enough volume and sample integrity to run the test. CSF serum titer samples are saved frozen fortwo months. CSF titer samples are refrigerated for two weeks. Slides for cytologies are kept for a minimum of three years.

Fee Information

In-clinic patients: Clinical Pathology services for in-house patients are charged to the patient account upon accessioning and are invoiced to the client at time of discharge. Any additional testing requested by the clinician on the case after discharge will be charged to the client and billed.

Send-in sample testing: There is no additional fee for send-in specimens. The Clinical Pathology laboratory cannot receive samples sent in by the owner without an attending veterinarian on the case. The test results and invoice will be given to the attending veterinarian. We can only give results to the attending veterinarian.

STAT requests include an additional fee and are not available for all tests.

All fees are subject to change. Please direct invoice and billing inquiries to the accounting department at 509-335-0816. For test pricing contact the Clinical Pathology laboratory at 509-335-0745.

Miscellaneous Fees

FeeDetails
Stat charge
After-Hours feeAfter-Hours fees will apply starting at 4 p.m. Monday-Friday, holidays, weekends (excluding in-clinic patient testing from 9 a.m. to noon Saturdays)
Federal Express shipping feeMost send-out tests will also have a FedEx shipping and handling charge applied
Antech IDEXX shipping and processing feeSome send-out tests will have a sample processing fee instead of a FedEx fee

Tests

Clinical Chemistries: Single Tests

Albuminserum200 μlmostsame day
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)serum200 μlmostsame day
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)serum200 μlmostsame day
Ammonia (in-clinic cases only)heparin
collect anaerobically
Full tube collected mostsame day
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)serum200 μlmostsame day
Pre Bile Acidsserum200 μlmostsame day
Post Bile Acidsserum200 μlmostsame day
Blood Urea nitrogen (BUN)serum200 μlmostsame day
Calciumserum200 μlmostsame day
Chlorideserum200 μlmostsame day
Cholesterolserum200 μlmostsame day
Creatine Kinase (CK)serum200 μlmostsame day
Creatinineserum200 μlmostsame day
Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT)serum200 μlmostsame day
Glucoseserum200 μlmostsame day
Magnesiumserum200 μlmostsame day
Phosphorusserum200 μlmostsame day
Potassiumserum200 μlmostsame day
Rumen ChlorideRumenFree fluidruminantssame day
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH)serum200 μllarge animalsame day
Sodiumserum200 μlmostsame day
Total Bilirubinserum200 μlmostsame day
TC02serum200 μlmostsame day
Total Proteinserum200 μlmostsame day
Triglyceridesserum200 μlmostsame day
***Several chemistries can also be performed on urine upon request.

Clinical Chemistries: Profiles

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaroundProfile includes 
Agriculture animal profileserum0.5 mlbovine, caprine, ovine, camelids, othersame daySDH,GGT, AST, ALP, CK, BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Magnesium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, TCO2, Anion Gap
Equine profileserum0.5 mlequinesame daySDH,GGT, AST, ALP, CK, BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Total Bilirubin, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, TCO2, Anion Gap
Small animal profileserum0.5 mlcanine, feline, othersame dayALT, ALP, Cholesterol, BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Total Bilirubin, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, TCO2, Anion Gap
Renal Mini profileserum200 μlmost speciessame dayBUN, Creatinine, Phosphorus
Large Animal Liverserum200 μlequine, camelids, bovine, caprine, ovine, otherSDH, GGT
Small Animal Liverserum200 μlcanine, felinesame dayALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin
Electrolytesserum/heparin plasma200 μlmost speciessame daySodium, Potassium, Chloride
Avian Profileheparin plasma200 μlaviansame dayAST, Bile acids, CK, Uric acid, Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, T. protein, Albumin, Globulin, Potassium, Sodium (Vetscan™ ) Analyzer
For send in chemistries, where possible the serum should be separated from the red cells

Coagulation

Test SpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesSpecies
Prothrombin Time (OSPT)Sodium citrate 3.2% plasma tube2.7 mlmost speciessame day
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)Sodium citrate 3.2% plasma tube2.7 mlmost speciessame day
Thrombelastography (TEG)Sodium citrate 3.2% plasma tube2.7 mlcanine, feline, equine
Due to the integrity of the sample /special tubes, the coagulation tests are usually for in-clinic patients only.
Samples for TEG must be submitted within an hour of sampling & the lab should be notified in advance.

Hematology

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaroundIncludes
Complete blood count (CBC)EDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame dayWBC count, RBC count, Platelet count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, MPV, manual differential, RBC morphology. (plasma protein is included if paired chemistry profile is not analyzed)
Avian CBCEDTA whole blood
(NOTE: ratites "emus, ostrich" and crows should be drawn in Heparin)
200 μlavian, reptilessame dayWBC count, manual differential, spun Hct, plasma protein, platelet estimate, RBC morphology, blood parasite evaluation
CBC with FibrinogenEDTA whole blood0.5 mlequine, bovine, ovine, caprine, camelids, othersame dayWBC count, RBC count, Platelet count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, MPV, manual differential, RBC morphology, plasma protein, fibrinogen. (Manual PCV and calculated indices are run for camelids)
CBC without differentialEDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame dayWBC count, RBC count, Platelet count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, MPV
Blood smear pathologist reviewBlood smearNAmost speciessame daySlide review by pathologist to detect abnormal cells, parasites/protozoa
Slide differentialBlood smear or EDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame daySlide WBC differential, WBC Estimate, WBC, RBC and platelet morphology
FibrinogenEDTA whole blood0.5 mlequine, bovine ovine, caprine, camelids, othersame dayfibrinogen, plasma protein
Platelet countEDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame dayplatelet count, MPV, slide review
PCV/plasma protein (refractometer)EDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame day
Reticulocyte countEDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame dayincludes: absolute reticulocyte and percent reticulocyte. Camelids are run manually NOTE: reticulocyte counts should be done same day as the blood draw)
WBC countEDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame day
Avian differential onlyblood smear or EDTA whole bloodavian, reptiles same day
Knotts testEDTA whole blood1 mlcanine, felinesame day
For send in CBCs, an air-dried blood smear for differential should be included with the EDTA blood tube for accurate differential results

Urinalysis/fecal

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaroundIncludes
Urinalysisurine in sample cup, red top tubemost speciessame daysample collection type, color, transparency, specific gravity, sulfosalicylic acid protein precipitation, dipstick pH, hemoglobin, ketones, bilirubin, glucose. Microscopic exam for RBC, WBC, casts, epithelial cells, crystals, other.
Urine protein/creatinine ratiourine in sample cup, red top tube0.5 mlmost speciessame dayurine microprotein, urine creatinine, ratio
Giardia Antigenfresh feces in sample cupmost speciessame day
Occult Bloodfresh feces in sample cupcanine, feline
Several urine chemistries can also be performed upon request.

Cytology

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaroundIncludes
Slide cytologyslidesmost speciessame day if received before 3:30pm
Fluid cytologyEDTA1-2ml preferred.
For send-in samples, a direct air dried smear of the fluid should be sent with the fluid when possible
most speciessame day if received before 3:30pmFluid cytology usually includes WBC count, Hct (PCV), refractometer protein specific gravity, description of fluid, mucin clot (joint fluids). Cytologic evaluation of TTW and BAL fluid only includes microscopic evaluation.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytologyAO or LS CSF in EDTA. Red top tube if titers and cultures neededmost speciessame day if received before 3:30pmCSF fluid cytology includes: description of fluid, WBC count, RBC count, CSF chemistries of glucose, microprotein, creatine kinase, and cytologic examination
Bone Marrowbone marrow slides, bone marrow in EDTA, Current CBCmost speciessame day if received before 3:30pm
Buffy coatEDTA whole blood0.5 mlmost speciessame day if received before 3:30pm
Alkaline Phosphatase staincytology slides, non-fixed, unstainedcaninesame day

Immunohematology

Test SpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaround
Canine DEA 1.1 typingEDTA whole blood0.5 mlcaninesame day
Feline blood typingEDTA whole blood0.5 mlfelinesame day
Canine CoombsEDTA whole blood0.5 mlcaninesame day
Small animal crossmatchEDTA whole blood2 ml from patient, Blood bag snippets or 2 ml EDTA from donorcanine, felinesame day
Equine crossmatchEDTA whole blood / red top tube2 ml from patient and donors equineequine same day
Blood transfusion products are for in-clinic patients only

Endocrine/Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaround
Cortisol pre/postserum1mlcanine, feline, equinesame day if received before 3pm
T4 totalserum1mlcanine, feline other species will be sent outsame day if received before 3pm
Progesterone serum1mlcaninesame day if received before 3pm
Phenobarbital serum1mlmost speciessame day if received before 3pm

Blood Gases

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaround Includes
Blood gas *anaerobic lithium heparin syringe 0.5 ml minimummost speciessame daypH, pCO2, pO2, O2 saturation, HCO3, base excess, TCO2
Blood gas/lytes *special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame dayblood gas, sodium, potassium, chloride
Blood gas plus *special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame daypH, pCO2, pO2, O2 saturation, HCO3, base excess, TCO2, Ionized magnesium, lactate, Ionized calcium
Lytesspecial heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame day Sodium, potassium, chloride
Blood gas/lytes plus *special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame daypH, pCO2, pO2, O2 saturation, HCO3, base excess, TCO2, Sodium, potassium, chloride, Ionized magnesium, lactate, Ionized calcium
Ionized magnesium*special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame day
Ionized calcium*special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame day
Lactate*special heparinized syringe0.5 ml minimummost speciessame day
* Due to sample integrity, blood gases, lactate, ionized magnesium, ionized calcium are done on in-clinic patients only. Processed within 30mins.

Miscellaneous Tests

TestSpecimenMin VolumeSpeciesTurnaroundIncludes
Ethylene GlycolEDTA plasma200 μlmost speciessame day
Occult Heartworm antigenplasma, serum 200 μlcanine, felinesame day
Snap 4DX plusplasma, serum, whole blood200 μl mostly caninesame dayincludes: E. canis/E. ewingii, A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi/ A. platys and heartworm
Snap cPL canine pancreatic lipaseserum200 μlcanine
Snap fPL feline pancreatic lipaseserum200 μlfeline